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The tempered glass homogenizing furnace belongs to the testing equipment, and is also called the auxiliary equipment of tempered glass by people in the glass machinery industry. After the completion of the glass tempering, the glass is detonated and the residual nickel sulfide is eliminated. The main purpose is to make the internal stress distribution of the glass uniform, avoid glass self-explosion, and improve the quality of tempering.
The homogenizing furnace is composed of a furnace body, a furnace body cover, a glass carrier vehicle, a wind road system, a heating system, an electric control system, and a pneumatic system.
01 Warming up
The heating phase starts from the heat of all the glass until the temperature of the last glass rises to 280°. The heating time is based on the time specified in the calibration process. The time required depends on the volume of the heating box, the number of processed glass, glass and glass. The distance between them and the power of the heating system are determined together. In order to avoid the glass blasting caused by the action of thermal stress, the spacing and heating power of the glass should be controlled as much as possible. In order to promote effective heating, the temperature of the air in the heating chamber may exceed 320°, but the surface of the glass is not allowed to exceed this temperature, and the time during which the surface temperature of the glass exceeds 300° should be minimized.
02 Constant temperature
The constant temperature section starts from a temperature of 280° for all processed glass surfaces. The duration of this phase is 2 hours. The heating chamber should be accurately controlled to ensure that the glass surface temperature is maintained at 290 ± 10 degrees in the constant temperature section.
03 Cool down
The cooling section is heated from the last piece of glass to 280° and the constant temperature section processing standard is completed, that is, after 290±10 degrees for 2 hours, the glass temperature starts to the ambient temperature in the word stage, and the temperature in the heating box is 70°. To complete the cooling. It is worth noting that the heating power should be reasonably controlled to minimize glass blasting due to thermal stress.
The PVB glass interlayer film is a polymer material formed by plasticizing and extruding a polyvinyl butyral resin by a plasticizer DHA. PVB glass interlayer film thickness is generally 0.38mm and 0.76mm. It has good adhesion to inorganic glass, and has the characteristics of transparency, heat resistance, cold resistance, moisture resistance and high mechanical strength. The PVB film is mainly used for laminated glass, and a PVB film mainly composed of polyvinyl butyral is sandwiched between two glasses. PVB laminated glass is widely used in construction, automotive and other industries due to its many functions such as safety, heat preservation, noise control and UV isolation.
PVB films produced by special formulations are also widely used in aerospace, military and high-tech industries, such as aircraft, spacecraft, military equipment, solar cells and solar receivers. Steel plate, etc.
1. Safety: When subjected to external impact, the elastic intermediate layer can absorb the impact, which can prevent the impact material from penetrating. Even if the glass is broken, only a small crack like a spider web is generated, and the fragments are firmly adhered to it. On the middle layer, it will not fall off and hurt people, and can continue to use until replacement.
2. anti-theft: PVB laminated glass is very tough, even if the thieves cracked the glass, because the middle layer and the glass firmly adhered together, still maintain the integrity, so that thieves can not enter the room. After installing the laminated glass, the guardrail can be omitted, which saves money and looks good and can get rid of the feeling of the cage.
3. sound insulation: PVB film has a damping function for sound waves, PVB laminated glass can effectively suppress the propagation of noise, especially in buildings located at airports, stations, downtown and roads, after installing laminated glass, its sound insulation effect Very obvious.
4. UV protection: PVB film can absorb more than 99% of ultraviolet light, thus protecting indoor furniture, plastic products, textiles, carpets, art, ancient artifacts or commodities from ultraviolet radiation and fading and aging.
5. Energy saving: Building laminated glass made of PVB film can effectively reduce the transmission of sunlight. At the same thickness, the laminated glass made of a dark low transmittance PVB film is more resistant to heat. Currently, domestically produced laminated glass has a variety of colors.
Construction (most of the building glass in Europe and America uses PVB laminated glass):
In Europe and the United States, most architectural glass uses PVB laminated glass, not only to avoid injury accidents, but also because PVB laminated glass has excellent seismic intrusion capability. The intermediate film can resist the continuous attack of weapons such as hammers and chopping knives. The special PVB laminated glass can resist the penetration of bullets for a long time, and its safety precaution is extremely high.
Modern living room, sound insulation effect is good, has become one of the important factors to measure the quality of housing. Laminated glass with PVB film blocks sound waves and maintains a quiet, comfortable office environment. Its unique UV-filtering function not only protects people's skin health, but also frees valuable furniture and displays in the home from the fading bad luck. It also reduces the transmission of sunlight and reduces the energy consumption of refrigeration.
The many advantages of PVB laminated glass can also have unexpectedly good effects in home decoration. Doors in many homes, including kitchen doors, are made of frosted glass. The cooking fumes in the kitchen are easy to accumulate on cooking. If you replace it with laminated glass, you won't have this trouble. Similarly, the large glass spacing in the home is a safety hazard for children who are naturally active. If you use laminated glass, parents can be relieved.
The PVB laminated glass is safely broken and may break under heavy ball impact, but the whole piece of glass remains integral, and the pieces and sharp small pieces still stick to the interlayer film. Tempered glass needs a large impact force to break. Once broken, the whole glass bursts into numerous fine particles, and only a small amount of broken glass remains in the frame. Ordinary glass breaks when it hits, and the typical broken condition produces many long strips of sharp mouth. When the laminated glass is broken, the mirror-shaped fragments surround the hole, and there are many pieces of glass left around the penetration point, and the length of the wire break is different.
With the rapid development of urbanization and real estate, the demand for PVB laminated glass has increased significantly. At present, the progress of urbanization construction in China is changing with each passing day. The increase of small cities, the transformation of large and medium-sized cities, and the construction of urban infrastructure have become important driving forces for China's investment demand and economic growth. At the same time, there is a strong demand for PVB laminated glass. In addition, China's real estate industry is in a stage of rapid development. In the first quarter of 2005, China's real estate investment increased by 26.7%, and continued to maintain rapid growth. With the rapid development of China's real estate real estate industry, China's decoration and decoration industry has also advanced in recent years, and its total output value has increased by about 20% every year. The prosperity of the building decoration industry has greatly affected the consumption of building decoration materials. It is expected that the demand for PVB laminated glass will exceed 15 billion yuan in the next five years, which will become an important value-added factor that cannot be ignored in the development of the national economy. From the perspective of consumption structure, residential is the primary growth point among the top five consumption hotspots of residential, automotive, tourism, education and information and information services. From the perspective of market space, the rapid growth of real estate investment will support the steady increase in demand for PVB laminated glass.
Automotive (PVB laminated glass is widely used in the automotive industry):
PVB laminated glass has high strength and toughness, and is resistant to collision, safety and transparency. Once broken, the inner and outer layers of glass can still be bonded to the PVB film. The PVB film has a large toughness and will arch up to absorb a part of the impact energy when subjected to impact, and has a certain buffering effect, and its high-speed impact strength is higher than that of tempered glass. Field investigation records also show that tempered glass has a higher rate of injury and death than laminated glass, and the ratio of debris to eyes is also high. In addition to safety, PVB laminated glass for automobiles also has the characteristics of anti-theft, sound insulation, UV protection and energy saving.
In view of the above characteristics, PVB laminated glass is widely used in the automotive industry.
In the first half of the year, China's economy continued to maintain a stable and high-speed growth, with GDP growth rate reaching 9.5%. The development of the domestic automobile market is still booming, and the automobile industry has become an important industry supporting the development of the national economy. In 2004, domestic automobile production and sales exceeded 5 million units, becoming the world's fourth largest auto market after the United States, Japan and Germany. In 2004, China's automobile production and sales reached 5.070 million and 5,071,100 units, an increase of 14.11% and 15.50% respectively, and basically maintained a balance. In recent years, China's automobile production and sales have maintained a growth rate of more than 30%.
According to the latest statistics released by the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers on August 12, as of July, the cumulative production and sales of automobiles nationwide this year was 3,261,300 and 3,240,400, both of which exceeded 3 million. Relevant experts predict that the annual production and sales volume of automobiles will reach 5.5 million in 2005, exceeding the sales and sales of automobiles in China in 2004. In the first half of the year, the sales volume of cars reached 1,307,400 units, an increase of 17.2% year-on-year, which became the backbone of the growth of the automobile market. The rapid growth of automobile sales has provided a broad space for the development of the automotive glass interlayer PVB film market. According to the relevant data of the Automobile Association, the consumption of PVB laminated glass for automobiles exceeded 20 billion yuan in 2003.
To sum up:
PVB laminated glass is safe for its good impact resistance and is a kind of safety glass. It is mainly used in transportation and construction industries in China. According to the statistics of the Glass Industry Association, there are more than 150 PVB laminated glass production lines in China, including more than 50 imported lines, with an annual production capacity of about 20 million square meters. The output in 2004 is more than 25 million square meters. It is estimated that PVB laminated glass production in 2010 It is expected to break through 50 million square meters.
With the rapid development of the construction and automotive industries, the demand for PVB laminated glass will develop rapidly, and the prospect of the Chinese market is bright. The Plastics Processing Association estimates that the demand for PVB glass interlayer film in China will reach 350,000 tons in 2005 and will exceed 600,000 tons by 2010. At present, the PVB film used in PVB laminated glass mainly relies on imports. The PVB diaphragms of Japan's Sekisui, DuPont, and the US's three major companies have almost monopolized China's market, seriously restricting the development of PVB laminated glass processing enterprises. After more than 20 years of development, China's PVB raw materials, production processes and production equipment are very mature. PVB film processing projects have become a hot investment.